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Home  >  Volume 41

Heavy Element Determination in Kohl Cosmetics Using Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence Analysis (EDXFA) For Risk Assessment by S.A. Muhammad (pages 181-188)
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A total of 38 different samples of Kohl comprising of 23 indigenous mined products and 15 imported products as control and were analyzed for general elemental composition but with particular interest in those reported to be of relevance (As, Cd, Hg, Ni, Co and Sb) in cosmetics. Energy dispersive X-ray Fluorescence Analysis EDXRA was used for the assay. Only Pb, As, Ni and Cr were detected among the elements of interest. Mean Pb concentrations of 277300 ppm; Ni at 2256 ppm concentration; and As at 810 ppm which are considerably higher than their safety limits (20 ppm p<0.01) were obtained in both the indigenous and imported products. The same risk was statistically observed to be involved following the use of both local and imported kohl products. Again Pb concentrations in excess of what was claimed on the labels of the imported kohl products were observed (p<0.01), hence the need for scrutiny of imported products by the relevant agency. The high concentration of Cr (7460 ppm, p<0.05) in the imported samples signifies its presence as colorant and the need for chromium control for the brands concerned. Also the observed presence of Th in the indigenous (local) samples suggests that Nigerian products may be of radiological effect to health.

Keywords: EDXRF, eye, kohl, risk assessment, toxic elements.